The Department of the Treasury

The Department of the Treasury

a. Formed in 1789

b. Mainly responsible for all financial matters of the federal government

c. Pays all the government’s bills, borrows money, collects taxes, mints coins, prints paper currency

d. Largest bureau is the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) – concerned with violations of tax law and regulations

F. Private Security

i. Even with increasing numbers of local, state, and federal law enforcement officers, police do not have ability to prevent every crime

ii. Privatizing Law Enforcement

a. Ideally, a security guard should only observe and report criminal activity unless use of force is needed to prevent a felony

b. Private security is not designed to replace law enforcement

c. Intended to deter crime rather than stop it

iii. Continued Health in the Industry

a. Indicators have pointed to higher growth in the industry

b. Four factors driving growth

1. Increase in fear on the part of the public triggered by growing crime rate, perceived or real

2. Problem of crime in the workplace

3. Budget cuts in states and municipalities have forced reductions in public police

4. Rising awareness of private security products

What If Scenario

What if . . . your gated community was experiencing a significant increase in the number of home burglaries this year. Many of the residents, retired and elderly folks, are scared to death that their home is going to be hit the next time they go on vacation. Folks are already not pleased with the response from the local police department, which is understaffed, over budget, and scaling back on crimes they simply don’t believe that they can solve. You, as the president of you homeowner’s association are tasked with providing a report to your association at the next meeting, detailing the benefits and detriments of hiring full time, 24/7 private security for your gated community. Based on your research, you decide to give a report listing the pros and cons of hiring private security. What will you propose? If you choose to hire private security, should they be armed security? Why or why not?

Lecture Notes

Modern police today have four primary responsibilities: (a) to enforce laws (b) to provide services (c) to prevent crime and (d) to preserve the peace. Do students agree with all of these mandates? Which is the most important? Those responsibilities come with a great deal of officer discretion. Discretion is the patrol officer’s ability to choose from a range of responses when s/he confronts a particular situation. What makes police officers worthy of the authority to use discretion? Take this opportunity to discuss with students the advantages and disadvantages of discretion and brainstorm the methods by which discretion can be limited.

The roots of law enforcement in the United States can be traced to England. Early law enforcement consisted of hired sheriffs; in 1801 Boston became the first city to institute a formal night watch; in 1838 Boston was the first to implement an organized police department. Since then, law enforcement has passed through three distinct eras: the political era, the reform era, and the community era. Work with students to identify the objectives and characteristics of each of these eras. Do students notice any themes or trends through the three eras?

Today there are five main types of law enforcement agencies: (a) municipal police departments; (b) sheriffs’ departments; (c) special police agencies, such as those limited to school protection or airport security; (d) state police departments/highway patrols; and (e) federal law enforcement agencies. While students may be aware of the variety of agencies operating in your state, understanding how those agencies interrelate can be daunting. Spend some time relating this material to your region as a method illustrating this material.

In the past decade, law enforcement at the federal level has undergone significant reorganization as a result of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Law enforcement has adapted to the changes by taking on an approach to policing called “Intelligence-Led Policing” that measures the risk of criminal behavior associated with certain individuals or locations so as to predict when and where such criminal behavior is most likely to occur in the future. This has, in turn, led to police agencies utilizing the internet for gathering information.

The chapter next turns to an examination of police officer hiring and training practices. Most agencies, at a minimum, require police officers to be citizens, not be convicted of a felony, have a driver’s license, be at least 21 years old, and meet weight and eyesight requirements. While many of the minimum requirements have remained unchanged for decades, many departments have chosen to increase their educational standards. In addition, many departments have made efforts to increase their ethnic and gender diversity. Women have increased from approximately 7% to 12% of police officers nationally over the last 25 years. Minorities have also been slowly increasing their presence in local police departments since the late 1980s. This is a good time to talk with students about what they think makes a good police officer. Do their ideas match the hiring standards of most agencies?

This is a good time to discuss the motivations behind the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, as well as outline the agencies that are included under DHS control. Students are often unfamiliar with the various agencies that deal with immigration and border control issues in their new format. You might also take this opportunity to talk about the organizational shifts that have occurred in the FBI since September 11, 2001. Many students indicate an interest in this particular agency for future employment. Discuss with students the size of the FBI relative to other federal agencies and point out to them the likelihood of competing for job openings with the FBI relative to other agencies which might be approximately the same size or larger, and yet tend to be overlooked by job seekers. Private security is one of the fastest growing areas of the criminal justice field. Why? What role does private security play in homeland security and crime prevention? The heightened fear of crime and the potential for a terrorist attack have led many businesses, as well as private citizens, to develop plans for securing their property and themselves. While there are advantages to implementing private security measures, there are also a number of concerns with this particular field, including a lack of standards and training.

Key Terms

Affirmative action – a hiring or promotion policy favoring those groups, such as women,

African Americans, or Hispanics, who have suffered from discrimination in the past or continue

to suffer from discrimination. (p. 117)

Coroner – the medical examiner of a county, usually elected by a popular vote. (p. 122)

Discrimination – the illegal use of characteristics such as gender or race by employers

when making hiring or promotion decisions. (p. 117)

Double marginality – the double suspicion that minority law enforcement officers face

from their white colleagues and from members of the minority community to which they belong.

(p. 119)

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) – the federal agency responsible for enforcing

the nation’s laws and regulations regarding narcotics and other controlled substances. (p. 126)

Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) – the branch of the Department of Justice

responsible for investigating violations of federal law. (p. 126)

Field training – the segment of a police recruit’s training in which he or she is removed

from the classroom and placed on the beat, under the supervision of a senior officer. (p. 116)

Infrastructure – the services and facilities that support the day-to-day needs of modern life,

such as electricity, food, transportation, and water. (p. 125)

Intelligence-led policing – an approach that measures the risk of criminal behavior

associated with certain individuals or locations so as to predict when and where such criminal

behavior is most likely to occur in the future. (p. 111)

Night watch system – an early form of American law enforcement in which volunteers

patrolled their community from dusk to dawn to keep the peace. (p. 108)

Patronage system – a form of corruption in which the political party in power hires and

promotes police officers receiving job-related “favors” in return. (p. 109)

Private security – security services provided by private corporations or individuals instead of by

police officers. (p. 128)

Probationary period – a period of time at the beginning of a police officer’s career during

which she or he may be fired without cause. (p. 115)

Professional model – a style of policing advocated by August Vollmer and O.W. Wilson

that emphasizes centralized police organizations, increased used of technology, and a limitation

of police discretion through regulations and guidelines. (p. 109)

Recruitment – the process by which law enforcement agencies develop a pool of

Qualified applicants from which to select new members. (p. 114)

Sheriff – the primary law enforcement officer in a county, usually elected to the post by

a popular vote. (p. 121)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) – the federal agency responsible for

protecting U.S. borders and facilitating legal trade and travel across those borders. (p. 124)

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) – the federal agency that enforces

the nation’s immigration and customs laws. (p. 124)

U.S. Secret Service – a federal law enforcement organization with the primary

responsibility of protecting the president, the president’s family, the vice president, and other

important political figures. (p. 125)

Visa – official authorization allowing a person to travel to and within the issuing country. (p.


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