Practice Essay Questions::What were punishments like before the influence of the classical philosophers?

Practice Essay Questions::What were punishments like before the influence of the classical philosophers?
Practice Essay Questions::What were punishments like before the influence of the classical philosophers?

1. What were punishments like before the influence of the classical philosophers?

2. Discuss some of the classical concepts and ideas that we still see in our criminal justice system today.

3. Who were some of the major contributors to classical thought and what were their specific contributions?

4. How were ideas about the basic nature of all men related to the way we determine criminal punishment?

Related Websites



Barnes, H. E. (1930). The story of punishment: A record of man’s inhumanity to man. Boston: Stratford.

Beccaria, C. (1963). On crimes and punishments (H. Paolucci, Trans.). Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill. (Original work Dei delitti e delle pene published 1764.)

Beirne, P. (1991). Inventing criminology: The “science of man” in Cesare Beccaria’s Dei delitti e delle pene (1764). Criminology, 29, 777–820.

Beirne, P. (1993). Inventing criminology: Essays on the rise of “Homo criminalis.” Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

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Beirne, P. (2006). Free will and determinism? Reading Beccaria’s Of Crimes and Punishments (1764) as a text of Enlightenment. In S. Henry & M. Lanier (Eds.), The essential criminology reader (pp. 3–17). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Bentham, J. (1830). The rationale of punishment. London: Robert Heward.

Bentham, J. (1905). Theory of legislation. London: Kegan Paul. Bentham, J. (1948). An introduction to the principles of morals and

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Howard, J. (1929). The state of the prisons of England and Wales. London: J. M. Dent. (Original work published 1777.)

Jeffery, C. R. (1956). The structure of American criminological think- ing. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 46, 658–672.

Jeffery, C. R. (1972). The historical development of criminology. In H. Mannheim (Ed.), Pioneers in criminology (2nd ed., pp. 458–498). Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith.

Jenkins, P. (1984). Varieties of enlightenment criminology. British Journal of Criminology, 24, 112–130.

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22 Chapter 2 • The Classical School

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Koper, C. S. (1995). Just enough police presence: Reducing crime and disorderly behavior by optimizing patrol time in crime hot spots. Justice Quarterly, 12, 649–672.

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Chapter 2 • The Classical School 23

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24 Chapter 2 • The Classical School

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▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ 3

The Positive School

Learning Objectives

Objective 3.1: Describe the development of biological theories of crime.

Objective 3.2: Discuss the work of Cesare Lombroso and what he contributed to criminology.

Objective 3.3: Explain what is meant by atavism and whether it is a still a relevant concept to the study of crime.

Objective 3.4: Compare and contrast the major principles of the classical and positivist school.

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