Year Event

Year Event

2006 Secure Fence Act passed 2006 National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 passed 2007 Failure of immigration reform

Sources: Lefcowitz, E. (1990). The United States immigration history timeline. New York: Terra Firma Press. Reprinted with permission; RapidImmigration. (2012). Significant Historic Dates in U.S. Immigration. Retrieved from history.html, February 25, 2011; Homeland Security. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.dhsgov/ index.shtm.

Box 3–2 Continued

In 2005–2009, 39.5 million people, approximately 13.5% of the popula- tion, lived below the poverty level (American Fact Finder 2010). Poverty rates differ by age, gender, race, and ethnicity. For example, the rates of poverty in 2005–2009 were

■ 25.1% for Blacks; ■ 21.9% for Hispanics; ■ 10.8% for non-Hispanic Whites; ■ 18.6% for children under 18; ■ 9.8% for adults over 65.

The federal government has an extensive history of efforts to improve the conditions of people living with limited incomes and material resources. Since the 1850s, there have been countless initiatives enacted to help citizens who were “poor.” The programs described in Table 3–7 are examples of federal cash assistance programs available to low-income families.

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