The APA System of Documentation

The APA System of Documentation

Citations in Text


The APA author-year system calls for the last name of the author and the year of pub- lication of the original work in the citation. If the cited material is a quotation, you also need to include the page number(s) of the original. If the cited material is not a quotation, the page reference is optional. Use commas to separate author, year, and page in a parenthetical citation. The page number is preceded by p. for a single page or pp. for a range. Use an ampersand (&) to join the names of multiple authors.

The conditions in the stockyards were so dangerous that workers “fell into the vats; and when they were fished out, there was never enough of them left to be worth exhibit- ing” (Sinclair, 2005, p. 134).

Racial bias does not necessarily diminish through exposure to individuals of other races (Jamison & Tyree, 2001).


Part Six presents three brief chapters that will help you in making oral presen- tations, consulting and writing with others, and writing in the community.

Finding Your Way around the Book

In a book as large and complex as this one, it can sometimes be hard to tell where you are or to find the information you need on a particular topic in the book. To help you find your way around, look at the information provided at the tops of the pages: in addition to page numbers, you’ll find chapter titles on the left-hand pages, and the title of the specific section you’re in on the right-hand pages.

Also, take advantage of the following color cues used for different sections of the book:

Guides to Writing in every chapter have yellow-edged pages.

MLA documentation sections have teal-edged pages.

APA documentation sections have reddish-orange-edged pages.

Handbook pages are tinted beige.

To locate information or additional material on particular topics, besides using the table of contents in the front of the book and the index in the back, you can benefit from the cross-references that appear in the margins throughout the book. Some marginal notes refer you to the companion Web site, where related material or electronic versions of material in the book are available.

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