In preparing our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, there are certain accounting policies that may require a choice between acceptable accounting methods or may require substantial judgment or estimation in their application. These include revenue recognition, income taxes, certain employee benefits and goodwill and intangible assets. We believe these accounting policies, and others set forth in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, should be reviewed as they are integral to understanding the results of operations and financial condition of the Company.

The Company has discussed the selection of significant accounting policies and the effect of estimates with the Audit Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors.

Revenue Recognition

Our revenue is primarily generated from the sale of finished product to customers. Those sales predominantly contain a single performance obligation and revenue is recognized at a

single point in time when ownership, risks and rewards transfer, which can be on the date of shipment or the date of receipt by the customer. Trade promotions, consisting primarily of customer pricing allowances, in-store merchandising funds, advertising and other promotional activities, and consumer coupons, are offered through various programs to customers and consumers. Sales are recorded net of trade promotion spending, which is recognized as incurred at the time of the sale. Amounts accrued for trade promotions at the end of a period require estimation, based on contractual terms, sales volumes and historical utilization and redemption rates. The actual amounts paid may be different from such estimates. These differences, which have historically not been significant, are recognized as a change in management estimate in a subsequent period.

Income Taxes

Our annual tax rate is determined based on our income, statutory tax rates and the tax impacts of items treated differently for tax purposes than for financial reporting purposes. Also inherent in determining our annual tax rate are judgements and assumptions regarding the recoverability of certain deferred tax balances, primarily net operating loss and other carryforwards, and our ability to uphold certain tax positions.

Realization of net operating losses and other carryforwards is dependent upon generating sufficient taxable income in the appropriate jurisdiction prior to the expiration of the carryforward periods, which involves business plans, planning opportunities and expectations about future outcomes. Although realization is not assured, management believes it is more likely than not that our deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowances, will be realized.

We operate in multiple jurisdictions with complex tax policy and regulatory environments. In certain of these jurisdictions, we may take tax positions that management believes are supportable, but are potentially subject to

successful challenge by the applicable taxing authority. These interpretational differences with the respective governmental taxing authorities can be impacted by the local economic and fiscal environment.

A core operating principle is that our tax structure is based on our business operating model, such that profits are earned in line with the business substance and functions of the various legal entities in the jurisdictions where those functions are performed. However, because of the complexity of transfer pricing concepts, we may have income tax uncertainty related to the determination of intercompany transfer prices for our various cross-border transactions. We have obtained and continue to prioritize the strategy of seeking advance rulings with tax authorities to reduce this uncertainty. We estimate that our current portfolio of advance rulings reduces this uncertainty with respect to over 70% of our global earnings. We evaluate our tax positions and establish liabilities in accordance with the applicable accounting guidance on uncertainty in income taxes. We review these tax uncertainties in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the progress of tax audits, and adjust them accordingly. We have a number of audits in process in various jurisdictions. Although the resolution of these tax positions is uncertain, based on currently available information, we believe that the ultimate outcomes will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Because there are a number of estimates and assumptions inherent in calculating the various components of our tax provision, certain changes or future events such as changes in tax legislation, geographic mix of earnings, completion of tax audits or earnings repatriation plans could have an impact on those estimates and our effective tax rate. See Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details on the Company’s income taxes.

Employee Benefits

We sponsor various postretirement benefits throughout the world. These include pension plans, both defined contribution plans and defined benefit plans, and other postretirement benefit (OPRB) plans, consisting primarily of health care and life insurance for retirees. For accounting purposes, the defined benefit pension and OPRB plans require assumptions to estimate the net projected and accumulated benefit obligations, including the following variables: discount rate; expected salary increases; certain employee-related factors, such as turnover, retirement age and mortality; expected return on assets; and health care cost trend rates. These and other assumptions affect the annual expense and net obligations recognized for the underlying plans. Our assumptions reflect our historical experiences and management’s best judgment regarding future expectations. As permitted by U.S. GAAP, the net amount by which actual results differ from our assumptions is deferred. If this net deferred amount exceeds 10% of the greater of plan assets or liabilities, a portion of the deferred amount is included in expense for the following year. The cost or benefit of plan changes, such as increasing or decreasing benefits for prior employee service (prior service

The Procter & Gamble Company 29

cost), is deferred and included in expense on a straight-line basis over the average remaining service period of the employees expected to receive benefits.

The expected return on plan assets assumption impacts our defined benefit expense since many of our defined benefit pension plans and our primary OPRB plan are partially funded. The process for setting the expected rates of return is described in Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. For 2021, the average return on assets assumptions for pension plan assets and OPRB assets was 6.5% and 8.4%, respectively. A change in the rate of return of 100 basis points for both pension and OPRB assets would impact annual after-tax benefit/expense by approximately $140 million.

Since pension and OPRB liabilities are measured on a discounted basis, the discount rate impacts our plan obligations and expenses. Discount rates used for our U.S. defined benefit pension and OPRB plans are based on a yield curve constructed from a portfolio of high quality bonds for which the timing and amount of cash outflows approximate the estimated payouts of the plan. For our international plans, the discount rates are set by benchmarking against investment grade corporate bonds rated AA or better. The average discount rate on the defined benefit pension plans of 1.7% represents a weighted average of local rates in countries where such plans exist. A 100 basis point change in the discount rate would impact annual after-tax benefit expense by approximately $210 million. The average discount rate on the OPRB plan of 3.2% reflects the higher interest rates generally applicable in the U.S., which is where a majority of the plan participants receive benefits. A 100 basis point change in the discount rate would impact annual after-tax OPRB expense by approximately $15 million. See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details on our defined benefit pension and OPRB plans.

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