Other Types of Intelligence

Other Types of Intelligence

One specific example of this dichotomy is the way that math is usually taught in schools. In algebra, for instance, students ordinarily memorize step-by-step processes so that they can demonstrate a particular skill. In this process, creative ways to solve problems are frowned upon. In fact, even if an answer is incorrect, showing many steps in a math problem is often rewarded while a correct answer that shows no steps is usually not awarded any credit at all. Perhaps a better balance between the analytical side (learning the processes) and the creative side (generating different methods and solutions) would allow for greater practical implementation (using math successfully in different situations).

Applying the Triarchic Model Tests of triarchic intelligence differ from standard IQ tests in that they force the taker to employ personal experience, use creative ideas, and understand social issues. They also have more than one possible answer (Diehl et al., 2005). For instance, two people looking for ways to cut business costs may create very different solutions, depending on how they approach the situation. Sternberg describes the intelligence needed by entrepreneurs. People who are in business for themselves need creative intelligence to come up with new ideas. They need analytical intelligence to decide whether their idea is a good one. Then they need practical intelligence to figure out how to market their ideas to people who have never heard of them before.

A single intelligence by itself would not be adequate. According to Sternberg (2004), people who have only high analytical intelligence make poor entrepreneurs because they can’t gen- erate new ideas. Having divergent approaches highlights the difference between the analyti- cal intelligence necessary for success in school and the more practical and creative abilities applied on the job. Indeed, many businesses are now requiring applicants to perform problem- solving tasks that are unrelated to the job description (e.g., “Measure four gallons of water using only a three-gallon and a five-gallon bucket”). Employers want to see that applicants can use their intelligence within the balanced domains that are characteristic of Sternberg’s model.

Section Review Sternberg’s model values the balance between the three elements. Assess the balance of the three elements in your chosen profession or field of study.

9.6 Other Types of Intelligence Although Gardner and Sternberg’s models have shifted the traditional discussion to be more inclusive of a wider array of abilities, researchers continue to identify new ways of being intelligent, such as having emotional intelligence or being creative.

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Section 9.6 Other Types of Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence, sometimes referred to as EQ, is a set of abilities that enable a per- son to process and use emotional information (Salovey & Mayer, 1989). Reasoning is used to enhance emotions and emotions are used to enhance reasoning. Emotionally intelligent people are thought to be self-aware, mature, sensitive to their own feelings and how these feelings can change, and able to manage their emotions so they are not overwhelmed by them. Compared to someone who often acts out, a person who is reflective when frustrated dem- onstrates higher emotional intelligence. Expanding on the foundation set forth by Salovey and Mayer, Daniel Goleman and his colleagues have identified five practical components of emotional intelligence, which often overlap (see Table 9.3).

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