Matrix of heritage consistency,

Matrix of heritage consistency, continued.

Cultural Heritage and History ■ 31

socialization. For many people who have been socialized within the bound- aries of a “traditional culture” or a non-Western culture, modern American culture becomes a second cultural identity. Those who immigrate here, legally or illegally, from non-Western or non-modern countries may find socializa- tion into the American culture, whether in schools or in society at large, to be an extremely difficult and painful process. They may experience bicultural- ism, which is a dual pattern of identification and one often of divided loyalty (LaFrombose, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993).

Understanding culturally determined health and illness beliefs and practices from different heritages requires moving away from linear models of process to more complex patterns of cultural beliefs and interrelationships.

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