1 Introduction to Global Marketing
Consider the following proposition: We live in a global marketplace. Apple iPhones, McDonald’s restaurants, Samsung HDTVs, LEGO toys, Swatch watches, Burberry trench coats, and Caterpillar earthmoving equipment are found practically everywhere on the planet. Global companies are fierce rivals in key markets. For example, American auto industry giants General Motors and Ford are locked in a competitive struggle with Toyota, Hyundai, and other global Asian rivals as well as European companies such as Volkswagen. U.S.-based Intel, the world’s largest chip maker, competes with South Korea’s Samsung. In the global cell phone market, Nokia (Finland), Apple (United States), Motorola (United States), and Samsung are key players. Appliances from Whirlpool and Electrolux compete for precious retail space with products manufactured and marketed by Germany’s Bosch, China’s Haier Group, and South Korea’s LG.
the Global Marketplace Is also Local
Exhibit 1-1 Salvatore Ferragamo, based in Florence, Italy, is one of the world’s leading fashion brands. Emerging markets represent important opportunities for luxury goods marketers. As Ferruccio Ferragamo notes, “We cannot make enough to keep up with demand from the Chinese. They want their shoes not just ‘Made in Italy’ but often ‘Made in Florence.’”
To show its support for socially responsible initiatives, Ferragamo recently introduced a new shoe line called Ferragamo WORLD that utilizes eco-friendly production processes. A portion of the proceeds from every pair sold supports Acumen Fund’s anti-poverty efforts in East Africa, India, and Pakistan. Source: Roussel Bernard/Alamy.
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1 Use the product/market growth matrix to explain the various ways a company can expand globally.
2 Describe how companies in global industries pursue competitive advantage.
3 Compare and contrast single-country marketing strategy with global marketing strategy (GMS).
4 Identify the companies at the top of the Global 500 rankings.
5 Explain the stages a company goes through as its management orientation evolves from domestic and ethnocentric to global and geocentric.
6 Discuss the driving and restraining forces affecting global integration today.
Which brands are Japanese? American? Korean? German? Indian? Where is Nokia headquartered? When is a German car not a German car? Can a car be both German and American? Consider:
• An American-built Ford Mustang has 65 percent American and Canadian content; an American-built Toyota Sienna XLE mini- van has 90 percent American and Canadian content.2
• China’s Shanghai Automotive (SAIC) owns the rights to the MG, the legendary two-seat British sports car. In 2008, SAIC began manufacturing a limited-edition TF model at a plant in Longbridge, UK. In 2011, production of the MG6 sedan began in Birmingham.3 India’s Tata Group recently paid $2.4 billion to acquire Land Rover and Jaguar from Ford.
• German carmaker BMW exports the X5 sport-utility vehicle that it builds in Spartanville, South Carolina, to more than 100 coun- tries.
At the end of this chapter, you will find the rest of Case 1-1. Taken together, the two parts give you the opportunity to learn more about the global marketplace and test your knowledge of cur- rent issues in global marketing. You may be surprised at what you learn!
Now consider a second proposition: We live in a world in which markets are local. In China, for example, Yum! Brands’ East Dawning fast-food chain competes with local restaurants such as New Asia Snack and Haidi Lao.1 France’s domestic film industry generates about 40 percent of local motion picture box office receipts; U.S.-made movies account for about 50 percent. In Turkey, local artists such as Sertab account for more than 80 per- cent of recorded music sales. Kiki, a Japanese magazine for teen- age girls, competes for newsstand sales with Vogue Girl, Cosmo Girl, and other titles from Western publishers. In Germany, the children’s television powerhouse Nickelodeon competes with local broadcaster Super RTL. In Brazil, many consumers are partial to Guaraná Antarctica and other local soft drink brands made from guaraná, a berry that grows in the Amazon region.
The “global marketplace versus local markets” paradox lies at the heart of this text book. In later chapters, we will investi- gate the nature of local markets in more detail. For now, how- ever, we will focus on the first part of the paradox. Think for a moment about brands and products that are found throughout the world. Ask the average consumer where this global “horn of plenty” comes from, and you’ll likely hear a variety of answers. It’s certainly true that some brands—McDonald’s, Dos Equis, Swatch, Waterford, Ferragamo, and Burberry, for instance—are strongly identified with a particular country. In much of the world, Coca- Cola and McDonald’s are recognized as iconic American brands, just as Ferragamo and Versace are synonymous with classic Italian style (see Exhibit 1-1).
However, for many other products, brands, and companies, the sense of identity with a particular country is becoming blurred.
1Laurie Burkitt, “China Loses Its Taste for Yum,” The Wall Street Journal (December 3, 2012), p. B9. 2Jathon Sapsford and Norihiko Shirouzu, “Mom, Apple Pie and . . . Toyota?” The Wall Street Journal (May 11, 2006), p. B1. 3Norihiko Shirouzu, “Homecoming Is Set for MG,” The Wall Street Journal (March 16, 2011), p. B8.
Introduction and overview as the preceding examples illustrate, the global marketplace finds expression in many ways. Some are quite subtle; others are not. While shopping, you may have noticed more multilanguage labeling on your favorite products and brands. Your local gas station may have changed its name from Getty to Lukoil, reflecting the russian energy giant’s expanding global reach. on the highway, you may have seen a semitrailer truck from Fedex’s Global Supply Chain Services fleet. or perhaps you took
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26 Part 1 • IntroductIon
advantage of radiohead’s offer to set your own price when you downloaded In Rainbows from the Internet. When you pick up a pound of whole-bean Central american coffee at your favorite coffee café, you will find that some beans are labeled Fair trade Certified. Your toll-free telephone call to a software technical support service or an airline customer service center may be answered in Bangalore or Mumbai. Slumdog Millionaire, which received an oscar in 2009 for Best Picture, was filmed on location in and around Mumbai. You have surely followed media reports about the occupy Wall Street movement in new York City and related protests in Great Britain, Germany, Greece, and Italy.
the growing importance of global marketing is one aspect of a sweeping transformation that has profoundly affected the people and industries of many nations during the past 160 years. International trade has existed for centuries; beginning in 200 b.c., for example, the legendary Silk road was a land route connecting China with Mediterranean europe. From the mid-1800s to the early 1920s, with Great Britain the dominant economic power in the world, international trade flour- ished. However, a series of global upheavals, including World War I, the Bolshevik revolution, and the Great Depression, brought that era to an end. then, following World War II, a new era began. Unparalleled expansion into global markets by companies that previously served only customers located in their respective home countries is one hallmark of this new global era.
Four decades ago, the phrase global marketing did not exist. today, businesspeople use global marketing to realize their companies’ full commercial potential. that is why, no matter whether you live in asia, europe, north america, or South america, you may be familiar with the brands mentioned in the opening paragraphs. However, there is another, even more critical reason why companies need to take global marketing seriously: survival. a management team that fails to understand the importance of global marketing risks losing its domestic business to competitors with lower costs, more experience, and better products.
But what is global marketing? How does it differ from “regular” marketing as it is typically practiced and taught in an introductory course? Marketing can be defined as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.5 Marketing activities center on an organization’s efforts to satisfy customer wants and needs with products and services that offer competitive value. the marketing mix (the four Ps of product, price, place, and promo- tion) comprises a contemporary marketer’s primary tools. Marketing is a universal discipline, as applicable in argentina as it is in Zimbabwe.
this book is about global marketing. an organization that engages in global marketing focuses its resources and competencies on global market opportunities and threats. a funda- mental difference between regular marketing and global marketing is the scope of activities. a company that engages in global marketing conducts important business activities outside the home-country market. the scope issue can be conceptualized in terms of the familiar product/ market matrix of growth strategies (see table 1-1). Some companies pursue a market develop- ment strategy; this involves seeking new customers by introducing existing products or ser- vices to a new market segment or to a new geographical market. Global marketing can also take the form of a diversification strategy in which a company creates new product or service offerings targeting a new segment, a new country, or a new region.
Starbucks provides a good case study of a global marketer that can simultaneously execute all four of the growth strategies shown in table 1-1:
● Market penetration: Starbucks is building on its loyalty card and rewards program in the United States with a smartphone app that enables customers to pay for purchases electroni- cally. the app displays a bar code that the barista can scan.
● Market development: Starbucks is entering India via an alliance with the tata Group. Phase 1 calls for sourcing coffee beans in India and marketing them at Starbucks stores throughout the world. the next phase will likely involve opening Starbucks outlets in tata’s upscale taj hotels in India.6
● Product development: Starbucks created a brand of instant coffee, Via, to enable its customers to enjoy coffee at the office and other locations where brewed coffee is not
“Traditionally, service at Chinese restaurants is not very good and Chinese eat out only for the taste of the food. What Haidi Lao does is to offer a different service experience to make customers feel important. When people are in a good mood, they are willing to spend more, and that is what Haidi Lao gets for its premier service.”4
—Professor Yu Hai, Department of Sociology, Fudan University
4Jin Jing, “Hotpot Chain Haidi Lao Places emphasis on Very Personal Customer Service,” Shanghai Daily (august 18, 2011). 5american Marketing association. http://www.marketingpower.com/aboutaMa/ Pages/ DefinitionofMarketing.aspx. accessed March 1, 2011. 6Paul Beckett, “Starbucks Brews Coffee Plan for India,” The Wall Street Journal (January 14, 2011), p. B8.
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