In what ways do these concepts include reasoning and understanding?

In what ways do these concepts include reasoning and understanding?

The Influence of Advancing Age on Cognition

need solutions. Their minds often skip steps that a novice would normally follow, or they twist a step in a unique way. Experts cannot always explain how they came to use a creative solution; they just knew to do it.

Other times, creativity follows systematic hard work and direction. Steve Jobs was famous for finding cre- ative solutions to technology or design problems that he was told were impossible to solve. He simply insisted that designers, marketers, and computer programmers work until they found a solution. Although at times he was sharply criticized for his manner in forcing this “alternate reality” onto overworked employees, he was also eminently successful precisely because of his high

degree of creative thinking (Isaacson, 2011). Dacey (1999) found that highly creative adults have some common characteristics, including those from the following list.

• Creative adults prefer to make their own decisions and plans. • They prefer their own judgment to that of others and tend not to back down in the

face of criticism or disagreement. • They are most resourceful when faced with unique circumstances or problems. • They show an imaginative use of many different words. • They show more flexibility in their approach to problems, are eager to try new

avenues, and are not bound to accepted rules or ideas. • They show originality (the most critical factor in creativity) and do not fall back on

typical solutions.

It has been argued that creativity begins to decline as we move into late adulthood, but it is difficult to separate associated declines in cognition and senses. Alternatively, it is suggested that the age-related decline in creativity is best thought of as a change in style and how it is expressed, perhaps due to physical changes in senses and movement, rather than being exclu- sive to degeneration (Mazzucchi, Sinforiani, & Boller, 2013).

Critical Thinking

Is creativity a form of intelligence? If you answered “yes,” what are some of the issues associated with defining and measuring creativity?

Section Review Describe how emotional intelligence and creativity are related to intelligence. In what ways do these concepts include reasoning and understanding?

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