Global Marketing Communications Decisions

Global Marketing Communications Decisions

Chapter 12 Global Marketing Channels and Physical Distribution 384 distribution Channels: objectives, terminology, and Structure 385

Consumer Products and Services 386 Industrial Products 390

Establishing Channels and Working with Channel intermediaries 391 global Retailing 394

Types of Retail Operations 395 Trends in Global Retailing 399 Global Retailing Market Expansion Strategies 402

Physical distribution, Supply Chains, and Logistics Management 403

Order Processing 408 Warehousing 408 Inventory Management 408 Transportation 409 Logistics Management: A Brief Case Study 412

Chapter 13 Global Marketing Communications Decisions I: advertising and Public relations 418 global Advertising 419

Global Advertising Content: Standardization versus Adaptation 422

Advertising Agencies: organizations and Brands 425 Selecting an Advertising Agency 427

Creating global Advertising 429 Art Direction and Art Directors 430 Copy and Copywriters 432 Cultural Considerations 432

global Media decisions 435 Global Advertising Expenditures and Media Vehicles 435 Media Decisions 436

Public Relations and Publicity 436 The Growing Role of PR in Global Marketing Communications 441 How PR Practices Differ Around the World 442

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Chapter 14 Global Marketing Communications Decisions II: Sales Promotion, Personal Selling, and Special forms of Marketing Communication 448 Sales Promotion 449

Sampling 452 Couponing 453 Sales Promotion: Issues and Problems 454

Personal Selling 455 The Strategic/Consultative Selling Model 457 Sales Force Nationality 462

Special Forms of Marketing Communications: direct Marketing, Support Media, Event Sponsorship, and Product Placement 464

Direct Mail 465 Catalogs 466 Infomercials, Teleshopping, and Interactive Television 467 Support Media 469 Sponsorship 471 Product Placement: Motion Pictures, Television Shows, and Public Figures 473

Chapter 15 Global Marketing and the Digital revolution 482 the digital Revolution: A Brief history 483 Convergence 488 Value networks and disruptive technologies 489 global E-Commerce 491 Web Site design and implementation 494 new Products and Services 497

Broadband 497 Cloud Computing 498 Smartphones 500 Mobile Advertising and Mobile Commerce 500 Mobile Music 502 Mobile Gaming 504 Internet Phone Service 504 Digital Books and Electronic Reading Devices 505

Part fIvE Strategy and Leadership in the twenty-first Century 510

Chapter 16 Strategic Elements of Competitive advantage 510 industry Analysis: Forces influencing Competition 511

Threat of New Entrants 511 Threat of Substitute Products 513 Bargaining Power of Buyers 513 Bargaining Power of Suppliers 514 Rivalry Among Competitors 515

Competitive Advantage 516 Generic Strategies for Creating Competitive Advantage 516

Broad Market Strategies: Cost Leadership and Differentiation 516 Narrow Target Strategies: Cost Focus and Focused Differentiation 517

The Flagship Firm: The Business Network with Five Partners 520 Creating Competitive Advantage via Strategic Intent 521

Layers of Advantage 522 Loose Bricks 523 Changing the Rules 523 Collaborating 523

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global Competition and national Competitive Advantage 524 Factor Conditions 525

Human Resources 525 Physical Resources 525 Knowledge Resources 526 Capital Resources 526 Infrastructure Resources 526

Demand Conditions 526 Composition of Home Demand 527 Size and Pattern of Growth of Home Demand 528 Rapid Home-Market Growth 528 Means by Which a Nation’s Products and Services Are Pushed or Pulled into Foreign Countries 528

Related and Supporting Industries 529 Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry 529 Chance 530 Government 530

Current issues in Competitive Advantage 531 Hypercompetitive Industries 531

Cost/Quality 532 Timing and Know-How 533 Entry Barriers 534

Additional Research on Comparative Advantage 535

Chapter 17 Leadership, Organization, and Corporate Social responsibility 544 Leadership 545

Top Management Nationality 546 Leadership and Core Competence 548

organizing for global Marketing 549 Patterns of International Organizational Development 551

International Division Structure 553 Regional Management Centers 555 Geographical and Product Division Structures 556 The Matrix Design 557

Lean Production: organizing the Japanese Way 559 Assembler Value Chains 560 Downstream Value Chains 561

Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Social Responsiveness in the globalization Era 563

Glossary 575 Author/Name Index 589 Subject/Organization Index 597

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Global Marketing, Eighth Edition, builds on the worldwide success of the previous editions of Principles of Global Marketing and Global Marketing. Those books took an environmental and strategic approach by outlining the major dimensions of the global business environment. The authors also provided a set of conceptual and analytical tools that prepared students to success- fully apply the four Ps to global marketing.

our goal for all eight editions has been the same: to write a book that is authoritative in con- tent yet relaxed and assured in style and tone. Here’s what students have to say:

● “an excellent textbook with many real-life examples.” ● “The authors use simple language and clearly state the important points.” ● “This is the best textbook that I am using this term.” ● “The authors have done an excellent job of writing a text that can be read easily.”

When Principles of Global Marketing first appeared in 1996, we invited readers to “look ahead” to such developments as the ending of america’s trade embargo with Vietnam, Europe’s new single market, Daimler aG’s Smart car, Volkswagen’s global ambitions, and Whirlpool’s expansion into emerging markets. These topics represented “big stories” in the global marketing arena and continue to receive press coverage on a regular basis.

Guided by our experience using the text in undergraduate and graduate classrooms and in corporate training seminars, we have revised, updated, and expanded Global Marketing, Eighth Edition. We have benefited tremendously from readers’ feedback and input; we also continue to draw on our direct experience in the americas, asia, Europe, africa, and the Middle East. The result is a text that addresses your needs and the needs of instructors in every part of the world. Global Marketing has been adopted at scores of colleges and universities in the United States; international use of the English-language Global Edition is found in australia, Canada, China, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Saudi arabia, South Korea, Spain, and Sri lanka. The text is also available in albanian, Chinese (simplified and traditional), Japanese, Korean, Macedonian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Turkish editions.

what’s New to the Eighth Edition Thunderclap Newman once sang,

“Call out the instigator, there’s something in the air . . . we’ve got to get together sooner or later, because the revolution’s here.”

Indeed, something is in the air. Two specific geopolitical developments that formed the backdrop to the Seventh Edition continue to dominate the headlines as this revision goes to press. First, after popular uprisings in North africa upended the long-entrenched political order, the region is still in transition. Tensions remain especially high in Egypt and Syria. Second, the sovereign debt crisis in the euro zone, while still not resolved, is not as acute today as it was in 2011. High on the EU’s agenda now are broader concerns about high unemployment levels and stagnant demand in Greece, Italy, and elsewhere.

More generally, the global economic crisis continues to impact global marketing strate- gies. Virtually every industry sector, company, and country has been affected by the downturn. although the North american auto industry is rebounding, Europe’s automakers are plagued by excess capacity. The lack of credit remains a key issue that is still squeezing companies and con- sumers. among the bright spots: Real estate values in the United States appear to have bottomed


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out, and the uptick in the demand for housing provides grounds for optimism. also, Wall Street continues to rebound, with some stocks hitting record highs.

although all of these storylines continue to unfold as this edition goes to press, we have tried to offer up-to-date, original insights into the complexities and subtleties of these shifts in the external environment and their implications for global marketers. other specific updates and revisions include:

● Fifty percent of the chapter-opening cases and related end-of-chapter cases are new to the Eighth Edition. Holdover cases have been revised and updated.

● all tables containing key company, country, and industry data have been updated. Examples include Table 2-3, “Index of Economic Freedom”; all the income and population tables in Chapters 3 and 7; Table 10-2, “The World’s Most Valuable brands”; Table 13-1, “Top 25 Global Marketers”; and Table 13-2, “Top 20 Global advertising agency Companies.”

● The discussion of bRIC nations has been expanded to talk about the bRICS countries, reflecting South africa’s increasing importance as an emerging market.

● New discussion of social media is integrated throughout the Eighth Edition. Chapter 15, “Global Marketing and the Digital Revolution,” has been completely revised and updated to include discussion of location-based mobile platforms, cloud computing, tablets, and other emerging topics.

● a new sidebar, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and the Global Startup, presents profiles of visionary business leaders from around the world.

● Income and population data in Chapter 3 have been reorganized for improved clarity and comparability.

● a new emphasis on developing critical thinking skills when analyzing chapter-ending cases has been included in the Eighth Edition.

● To supplement the use of Global Marketing, Eighth Edition, faculty and students can access author updates and comments on Twitter, the microblogging Web site. In addition, the authors have archived nearly 2,000 articles pertaining to global marketing on, the social bookmarking site (

Time marches on. as this edition goes to press in 2013, some iconic global brands and companies celebrate golden anniversaries. among them: the beatles! Fifty years ago, the bea- tles topped the charts in the United Kingdom before fundamentally revolutionizing popular music. also 50 years ago, the first hypermarket opened in France. Turning 40 this year is the mobile phone; Motorola’s DynaTec mobile handset was the first shot fired in the nascent tele- communications revolution. It was 30 years ago, in 1983, that Theodore levitt’s classic article “The Globalization of Markets” was published in Harvard Business Review. That same year, the compact disc player was introduced, ushering in a new era of digital music. and, in april 2013, apple’s game-changing iTunes store turned 10.

Unifying themes in earlier editions included the growing impact of emerging nations in general and brazil, Russia, India, and China in particular. To those four bRIC countries we add South africa in this edition. also in earlier editions, we explored the marketing strategies used by global companies such as Embraer (brazil), lukoil (Russia), Cemex (Mexico), lenovo (China), and India’s big Three—Wipro, Infosys, and Tata—to build scale and scope on the global stage. We then broadened our view to examine emerging markets as a whole. We noted that, prior to the world wide economic downturn, Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkey (the so-called MINTs) and a handful of other emerging nations were rapidly approaching the tipping point in terms of both competitive vigor and marketing opportunity.

In the Seventh Edition previously, we charted the path of the nascent economic recovery and the resulting shifts in global market opportunities and threats. New phrases such as austerity, capital flight, currency wars, double-dip recession, global imbalances, global rebalancing, quantitative easing (QE), and sovereign-debt crisis were introduced into the discourse. The crisis in the euro zone was, and remains, one of the top stories of the year. Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain bear especially close observation; this is the open- ing case in Chapter 3. Meanwhile, the big news in asia was China’s overtaking Japan as the world’s second-largest economy. China has also surpassed the United States as the world’s leading manufacturer.

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The aforementioned trends are central to the Eighth Edition as well. as noted previously, unprecedented social and political change is underway in North africa. Sub-Saharan africa’s economies are rebounding from the global financial crisis at a rapid pace. Every day the busi- ness press contains another announcement that a global company plans to enter africa or expand operations there. bharti-airtel, Coca-Cola, Ford, IbM, Nestlé, and Walmart are among the com- panies that have joined the “final gold rush” into the world’s last untapped market. “africa 3.0,” the lead-in case to Chapter 15, explores the way mobile phones are transforming business and home life across the continent. This is clearly a region that bears watching.

Current research findings have been integrated into each chapter of Global Marketing, Eighth Edition. For example, we have incorporated key insights from Seung Ho Park and Wilfried R. Vanhonacker’s article “The Challenge for Multinational Corporations in China: Think local, act Global,” which appeared in MIT Sloan Management Review in 2007. Similarly, we found arin- dam K. bhattacharya and David C. Michael’s 2008 Harvard Business Review article “How local Companies Keep Multinationals at bay” to be extremely insightful.

Similarly, our thinking about the global/local market paradox has been influenced by John Quelch’s 2012 book, All Business Is Local. We have added scores of current examples of global marketing practice as well as quotations from global marketing practitioners and industry experts. Throughout the text, organizational Web sites are referenced for further student study and exploration. a companion Web site ( is integrated with the text as well.

End-of-Chapter Cases and Chapter Sidebars Each chapter opens with a brief case study introducing a company, a country, a product, or a global marketing issue that directly relates to the chapter’s themes and content. The cases vary in length from a few hundred words to more than 2,600 words, yet they are all short enough to be covered in a single class period. The cases were written with the same objectives in mind: to raise issues that will encourage student interest and learning; to stimulate class discussion; to give students a chance to apply theory and concepts while developing critical thinking skills; and to enhance the classroom experience for students and instructors alike. Every chapter and case has been classroom-tested in both undergraduate and graduate courses.

The end-of-chapter cases strike a balance between revisions and updates of cases from the Seventh Edition and cases that are new to this edition. Revised and updated cases include Case 1-2, “McDonald’s Expands Globally While adjusting Its local Recipe”; Case 7-1, “Global Companies Target low-Income Consumers”; Case 15-1, “africa 3.0”; and Case 16-1, “Volkswa- gen aims for the Top.”

New cases in the Eighth Edition include Case 1-3, “apple Versus Samsung: The battle for Smartphone Supremacy Heats Up”; Case 3-1, “Global Trading Partners look East and West for Economic Growth”; Case 4-1, “Will Tourism Ruin Venice?”; Case 5-1, “Mr. President— Free Pussy Riot!”; Case 8-1, “East-asian countries: Export-led Growth for Economic Success”; Case 9-1, “Mo’men launches Franchises in UaE”; Case 12-1, “Carrefour’s Entry in Dubai”; and Case 14-1, “Red bull.”

In addition, every chapter contains two or more sidebars on three themes: Emerging Markets briefing book; Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and the Global Startup; and The Cultural Context. among the entrepreneurs profiled are Kevin Plank (Under armour), Reed Hastings (Netflix), and Diego Della Valle (Tod’s).

teaching aids for Instructors on the Instructor’s resource Center at, instructors can access a variety of print, digital, and presentation resources available with this text in downloadable format. Registration is simple and gives you immediate access to new titles and new editions. as a registered faculty member, you can download resource files and receive immediate access and instructions for installing course management content on your campus server.

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If you need assistance, our dedicated technical support team is ready to help with the media supplements that accompany this text. Visit for answers to fre- quently asked questions and toll-free user-support phone numbers.

The following supplements are available to adopting instructors (for detailed descriptions, please visit

● Instructor’s Manual. This downloadable instructor’s manual includes sample syllabi, lecture outlines, answers to all end-of-chapter questions and case questions, and additional activities and assignments for your students. This manual is available for download by visiting

● Test Item File. This downloadable Test Item File contains over 1,600 questions, including multiple-choice, true/false, and essay-type questions. Each question is followed by the correct answer, the learning objective it ties to, the aaCSb category when appropriate, the question type (concept, application, critical thinking, or synthesis), and a difficulty rating.

● PowerPoints. These downloadable PowerPoint slides are available from www.pearson PowerPoints include the basic outlines and key points with corresponding figures and art from each chapter. These PowerPoint slides are completely customizable for individual course needs or are ready to use as is. The notes section of each slide provides additional explanations written for your students.

● TestGen. Pearson Education’s test-generating software is available from www.pearson The software is PC/Mac compatible and preloaded with all of the Test Item File questions. You can manually or randomly view test questions and drag- and-drop to create a test. You can also add or modify test bank questions as needed.

video Library Videos illustrating the most important topics can be accessed at:

MyMarketinglab—available for instructors and students, provides round-the-clock, instant access to videos and corresponding assessments and simulations for Pearson textbooks.

CourseSmart* CourseSmart eTextbooks were developed for students looking to save on required or recommended textbooks. Students simply select their eText by title or author and purchase immediate access to the content for the duration of the course using any major credit card. With a CourseSmart eText, students can search for specific keywords or page numbers, take notes online, print out reading assignments that incorporate lecture notes, and bookmark important passages for later review. For more information or to purchase a CourseSmart eTextbook, visit

one of our challenges in writing new editions of this textbook is the rate of change in the global business environment. Yesterday’s impossibility becomes today’s reality; new companies explode onto the scene; company leadership changes abruptly. In short, any book can be quickly outdated by current events. Even so, we set out to create a compelling narrative that captures the unfolding drama that is inherent in marketing in the globalization era. The authors are passionate about the subject of global marketing; if our readers detect a note of enthusiasm in our writing, then we have been successful. We believe that you will find Global Marketing, Eighth Edition, to be the most engaging, up-to-date, relevant, and useful text of its kind.

*This product may not be available in all markets. For more details, please visit or contact your local Pearson representative.

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This book reflects the contributions, labor, and insights of many persons. I would like to thank my students, colleagues, associates, and clients for sharing their insights

and understanding of global marketing theory and practice. It is impossible to single out everyone who has contributed to this edition, but I would especially like to thank:

Stephen blank, lawrence G. bridwell, Steve burgess, John Dory, bob Fulmer, Donald Gibson, Pradeep Gopalakrisna, Jim Gould, David Heenan, Hermawan Kartajaya, Suren Kaushik, bodo b. Schlegelmilch, Jim Stoner, John Stopford, barbara Stöttinger, Michael Szenberg, Martin Topol, Robert Vambery, and Dominique Xardel.

I also wish to acknowledge the many contributions of the students in my doctoral seminar on global strategic marketing. The Pace doctoral students are a remarkable group of experienced executives who have decided to pursue a doctoral degree while working full time.

My associates at Keegan & Company—Eli Seggev, Mark Keegan, and anthony Donato— are outstanding expert consultants. Their collective backgrounds include doctoral degrees in mar- keting, and law and a master’s degree in public administration. The cross-fertilization of their training and experience and challenging client assignments addressing contemporary marketing issues is a continuing source of new ideas and insights on global strategic marketing.

Special thanks are due the superb librarians at Pace University: Michelle lang, head, Gradu- ate Center library, and anne b. Campbell, reference librarian, have a remarkable ability to find anything. like the Canadian Mounties who always get their man, Michelle and anne always get the document. My admiration for their talent and appreciation for their effort are unbounded.

Elyse arno brill, my coauthor for Offensive Marketing (butterworth Heinemann), has pro- vided invaluable assistance in researching, writing, and teaching. Her energy and creativity are unbounded. I am in awe of her ability to juggle a large and growing family, community service, a working farm, and our joint projects. She is an original and creative thinker with an impressive ability to identify important new directions and insights in marketing.

Stephanie Wall, Editor in Chief at Pearson, and Mark Gaffney, acquisitions Editor, were quick to endorse and support the Eighth Edition. becca Groves, Production Project Manager; and Daniel Petrino, Editorial assistant, kept the revision process on track and on schedule. Michelle Dellinger, Senior Project Manager at Integra, shepherded the manuscript through the final stages of the publication process. We are also grateful for the continuing support at Pearson.

Finally, I wish to thank my wife, Dr. Cynthia MacKay, who is a constant source of inspira- tion, support, and delight, as well as my companion in global market field research trips (many by motorcycle).

Warren J. Keegan

September 2013

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