Child, Family, and Community Family-Centered Early Care and Education

Child, Family, and Community Family-Centered Early Care and Education

Child, Family, and Community Family-Centered Early Care and Education
Child, Family, and Community Family-Centered Early Care and Education

Seventh Edition

Janet Gonzalez-Mena

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, author.

Child, family, and community : family-centered early care and education / Janet Gonzalez-Mena. — Seventh edition. pages cm

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-404227-5 (alk. paper) 1. Socialization. 2. Child rearing. 3. Families. I. Title. HQ783.G59 2017 649’.1—dc23

To Shaquam Kimberly Edwards, contributor to this edition. Shaquam took on what I consider the hardest part of this revision—

making it into an e-book. She stepped in willingly and capably to meet the creative challenges of bringing the book to life digitally. I’m

forever grateful for her contributions! I wrote the first edition of this book on a typewriter. Putting later editions on the computer was a big step forward for me. Shaquam took me into the e-book era, gracefully

and enthusiastically, for which I’m thankful.

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A seminal report published by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) was released just as this revision was about to go to press, titled “Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Founda- tion.” One of the themes of the report relates to making higher education programs for professionals more effective with a goal of supporting consistent quality. This report couldn’t be more timely coming out as it did at the same time as the 7th revision of Child, Family, and Community. We are ready for change as a nation. We are ready to be sure that those who work with young children get an excellent education to prepare them for further study, for being a contributing part of the community, and for all-round mature development. Right in line with transforming the workforce comes the transformation of this Child, Family, and Community textbook. The 7th edi- tion, now in an e-text format, is startlingly different from the many revisions that preceded it.

This revision, as others in the past, focuses on contexts—the contexts in which children are reared and educated. It’s not about “the child” or even “children” because those words have no meaning by themselves. Each child is born and raised in mul- tiple social contexts. This text is about the influences of all those contexts. Nurturing and protection of each child must be viewed in terms, not only of the family, but also of the community—its neighborhoods, people, cultures, and institutions—both local and national. Care-and-education institutions are part of this context.

As in earlier editions, the major theories around which this book is based in- volve the community being the context in which child rearing takes place, no matter what shape or form the families take. This book still focuses on families, but also on the people and agencies outside the family. Some of those people who are using this text are now, or will become, those professionals who work with families and their children.

New to this editioN E-Text Format Anyone used to the black and white paperback book will see a world of difference when they take their first look at the new e-text format. There is no comparison. Not that both the e-text and the paper book aren’t greatly updated with the latest information and research, but the new format as an e-text has a number of engaging new features. Note that the Pearson e-text format contains the following digital components: video links, interactive section quizzes called “Check Your Understanding,” and end-of-chapter quizzes; other e-text formats do not currently contain these interactive digital elements.

Videos Links to video in every chapter of the e-text augment the written word. As students read from the screen, they know that with one click, video appears with further information that comes in a variety of ways. Sometimes the informa- tion comes from the mouths of the researchers whose work is mentioned in the chapter. Certainly when students hear from academics who have contributed so much to the field of child development and early childhood education, everything becomes more personal and meaningful. Sometimes students see video clips that demonstrate what the researchers talk about. We look into live classrooms to see examples of various approaches of working with groups of children—or with individuals—or with family members. Footage of actual teachers in classroom scenes show examples of what is discussed in writing. Child development infor- mation is portrayed by children themselves in families and in classrooms and more. Community resources come alive as users talk about their experiences. Sometimes the focus is on the environment, which offers inspiration for those students who work in programs that lack rich, or even adequate, developmentally appropriate settings. Often we see and hear people who represent the community resources found in neighborhoods. We also have a chance to see examples of children’s behaviors at different developmental levels.

The many videos, three to four in each chapter, bring information beyond the words in the text and bring it in living color with sound and movement. Further, the videos have reflection questions in the text to promote thought or classroom discus- sion. What could be more meaningful for the generations that are media savvy and know how to use it to their advantage!

A New Interactive Assessment Feature Called “Check Your Understanding.” This new feature, which has been added at the end of each major section in each chapter, is a multiple-choice assessment that aligns with, and asks questions about, each Learning Outcome. The correct answer is noted and feedback is provided. Students can then see what they have learned from reading each section. This makes good sense and is quite effective. They can immediately determine what they for- got or misunderstood, which allows them to go back and reread so they retain the information.

Interactive End-of-Chapter Quizzes At the end of each chapter there are short-answer format quizzes, with feedback, to assess student understanding—and reinforce learning—of chapter content.

Color Photos Of course there are also still photographs as always—pictures that give visual em- phasis to the concepts written about. In the e-text the photographs are in living color—quite a contrast to black and white photos with “yesteryear” invisibly stamped on them.

Preface vii

other chaNges aNd additioNs Reorganization of Each Chapter Helping students grasp and retain what they read is important in any textbook. To that end, every chapter has been more clearly organized with an average of three major Learning Outcomes, with corresponding headings, followed by three to five topic headings that relate to the subject(s) in each major heading. This organization makes it easier for students to follow and remember the information.

Examples of New Topics and Expanded Previous Ones ◆ Gender roles. Discussion and research about young children developing gender

roles has been greatly updated and expanded. ◆ Mindset. Carol Dweck’s theory on how to help children move beyond a “fixed

mindset” that leads them to give up in the face of even a minor failure. Informa- tion and examples are included of how to encourage an open mindset. Children with an “open mindset” keep going even when failure occurs or seems inevitable. An open mindset leads to exploration and growth.

◆ Grit. Angela Duckworthy and others explore how what they call “grit” helps people stick to challenges, persist, and achieve success.

◆ Self-esteem. Not a new subject but an important one. The topic of self-esteem has been reworked and expanded in this edition.

A Change in the Order of the Chapters Chapter 2, “The Societal Influences on Families” (including racism), was too emo- tionally laden to come so early in the term according to users. That chapter is now Chapter 6, which works better after students have gotten to know each other.

Updated “Further Readings” Twenty to thirty percent of the list at the end of each chapter under “Further Read- ings” has been replaced with updated resources.

Highlighted Major Points A new marginal feature of key brief points from the author are added for interest and emphasis.

fouNdatioNal ideas suPPortiNg this Book ◆ Theory is presented in easy to understand language. The book rests on a

base of solid academics, constructivist theory, developmental research, anthro- pological studies, and the personal experience of the author.

◆ The chapters place an emphasis on the ecological theory of human devel- opment. Every chapter shows how professionals and families can partner to

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viii Preface

support healthy growth and development so that the child functions fully as a competent community member.

◆ The book emphasizes cultural contexts. Valuing diversity, plus acknowledging and understanding cultural contexts, has always been an important foundation of this book. The new edition puts even more emphasis on perceiving and appre- ciating cultural differences in order to embrace them. The attitude of acceptance that develops challenges the students to expand their definitions of “develop- mentally appropriate practice.”

◆ Reflection on personal experience is encouraged. Readers are asked to bring their own ideas, experiences, and insights to their reading—in accordance with Jean Piaget’s ideas about learners attaching new knowledge to existing knowl- edge. In other words, readers are encouraged to reach into their own experiences to make sense of new information in terms of what they already know. They are encouraged to see how that same approach works equally well when relating to families and conveying information to them. Whether a student, a teacher, or a parent, respect for one’s own background, experiences, knowledge, ideas, and insights is important. Because whatever we read always filters through our own subjective experiences, this text acknowledges that fact and capitalizes on it. Thus students can feel at home and find their own voices. They are asked to do the same for the children and families they work with.

◆ Anecdotes and examples are provided throughout. Each chapter contains stories and examples designed to take the subject out of the realm of theory and into the real world of practice. Examples are designed to appeal to both tradi- tional and non-traditional students, reflecting the changing demographics of the United States.

◆ Advocacy is emphasized. The “Advocacy in Action” feature appeals to those students who want to “do something!” about improving the lives of children, families, the education systems, and society in general. This feature gives stu- dents ideas about ways of being public and personal advocates.

iNstructor suPPlemeNts to this text All ancillary resources for instructors are available for download by adopting profes- sors via in the Instructor Resource Center.

Instructor’s Resource Manual: This manual contains chapter overviews, activity ideas for both in and out of class, and ways to integrate the digital content into your course.

Online Test Bank: The test bank includes a variety of test items in various formats.

Pearson TestGen: This test-generation software is available in various learning management system formats. Download and use as is or create your own exams with provided items and your own items. Test items included are the same items in the Online Test Bank.

Preface ix

Online PowerPoint Slides: PowerPoint slides highlight key concepts and strategies in each chapter. They can be used to enhance lectures and discussions, or can be posted on your learning management system as an additional study resource for your students.

ackNowledgmeNts Special thanks to the reviewers of this edition: Vernell D. Larkin, Hopkinsville Community College; Tonia Pa- drick, Cape Fear Community College; Tasha Smith, Solano Community College; and Shaquam Urquhart Ed- wards, College of Marin.

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