Characteristic Native Population

Characteristic Native Population

Foreign Born

Naturalized Citizens

Not a U.S. Citizen

Population 264.1 million 37.3 million 15.9 million 21.4 million Median age 35.6 years 40.1 48.6 years 34.5 years Asian 1.7% 23.5% 31.1% 17.9% Hispanic 10.6% 47.0% 31.2% 58.7% Population 25 years and older, less than high school

12.3% 32.2% 22.5% 40.7%

Speak language other than English

9.7% 84.2% 78.3% 88.7 %

Speak English less than well 2.0% 52.1% 38.8% 62.0% Family poverty rates 8.9% 15.1% 8.7% 21.9% Poverty status below 100% of poverty level

13.0% 16.4% 9.8% 21.3%

Renting household unit 31.1% 46.1% 31.1% 62.2% Vehicle unavailable 8.1% 13.4% 11.5% 15.3% No telephone service 4.2% 4.7% 2.5% 7.0%

Source: American Fact Finder. Selected Characteristics of the Native and Foreign-Born Population (2005–2009). American Community Survey. Retrieved from ACS_2009_5YR_G00_S0501&-ds_name=ACS_2009_5YR_G00_&-redoLog=false, July 7, 2011.

Residents are residing. Table 3–5 shows the leading 10 countries of origin for Legal Permanent Residents flow by country of birth in 2010. Table 3–6 compares selected characteristics of the native and foreign-born populations in 2005. The following are examples:



52 ■ Chapter 3

■ Fewer foreign-born people are likely to have a vehicle than native-born residents.

■ More foreign-born people are likely to graduate from high school than natives.

■ More foreign-born people are likely to speak English less than well. ■ More foreign-born people are likely to be unemployed. ■ More foreign-born people are likely to earn less than natives. ■ More foreign-born people are likely to live in poverty than natives.

There are estimated (as of 2007) to be 12 million undocumented people living in the United States. It is extremely difficult to count the number of peo- ple who are hiding because they are not documented. It is widely recognized that the population is growing by about 275,000 people each year. California is the leading state of residence for undocumented people. Other states include Texas, New York, and Florida.

There has been an effort by the government to tighten both immigration and travel access to the United States since the terrorist attacks in September 2001. On July 22, 2002, the Justice Department announced that it would use criminal penalties against immigrants and foreign visitors who fail to notify the government of change of address within 10 days. This requirement is not a new one, but it has not been strictly enforced. This will have an impact on at least 11 million people and visitors who stay in the United States for more than 30 days (Davis & Furtado, 2002, p. A2). In addition, this will have an impact on the health care system and on providers of health care both directly and indirectly. For example, it will be more difficult for people to work here and to visit family members who are ill. In addition, the passage of Proposition 187 in California in November 1994, and earlier laws relating to bilingual education in Texas, demonstrates that many citizens are no longer willing to provide basic human services, such as health care and education, to new residents in general and those who are undocumented specifically. Thus far, the implementation of these laws has been held up in the courts. Despite such efforts, however, it is evident that immigration to this country will continue. It is predicted that by the year 2020, immigration will be a major source of new people for the United States and will be responsible for whatever growth occurs in the United States after 2030. The United States will continue to attract about two-thirds of the world’s immigrants, and 85% will be from Central and South America. Other immigration events are noted in Box 3–2.

On May 17, 2007, the U.S. president and a bipartisan group of senators reached bipartisan agreement on comprehensive immigration reform. The pro- posal included the following points:

1. Putting border security and enforcement first. 2. Providing tools for employers to verify the eligibility of the workers

they hire. 3. Creating a temporary worker program. 4. No amnesty for illegal immigrants.



Diversity ■ 53

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