Beyond the Traditional Essay: Remembering an Event 38


Beyond the Traditional Essay: Remembering an Event 38

Guide to Writing 40

The Writing Assignment 40 Starting Points: Remembering an Event 41

Invention and Research 42 Choosing an Event to Write About 42

Ways In: Constructing a Well-Told Story 44

Creating a Dominant Impression Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice Exploring Memorabilia

Ways In: Reflecting on the Event’s Autobiographical Significance 46

Defining Your Purpose and Audience Considering Your Thesis

Planning and Drafting 47 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting Working with Sources: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

Critical Reading Guide 52

Revising 53 Troubleshooting Your Draft 54

Thinking about Document Design: Integrating Visuals 55

Editing and Proofreading 56 Missing Commas after Introductory Elements Using the Past Perfect Fused Sentences

A Writer at Work 57

Jean Brandt’s Essay from Invention to Revision 57 Invention The First Draft Critical Reading and Revision

xxxviii CONTENTS

Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 62

Reflecting on Your Writing 62

Considering the Social Dimensions: Autobiography and Self-Discovery 63

3 WRITING PROFILES 64 A Collaborative Activity: Practice Conducting an Interview 66

Reading Profiles 67

Basic Features 67

Purpose and Audience 68

Readings 69

Brian Cable, “The Last Stop” 69 John T. Edge, “I’m Not Leaving Until I Eat This Thing” 74 Susan Orlean, “Show Dog” 81 Amanda Coyne, “The Long Good-Bye: Mother’s Day in

Federal Prison” 90

Beyond the Traditional Essay: Writing Profiles 97

Guide to Writing 99

The Writing Assignment 99 Starting Points: Writing a Profile 100

Invention and Research 101 Choosing a Subject to Profile

Ways In: Finalizing Your Choice 103

Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice Setting Up a Tentative Schedule

Ways In: Collecting Information from Field Research 106

Ways In: Reflecting on Your Purpose and the Profile’s Perspective 108

Considering Your Thesis Designing Your Document


Planning and Drafting 109 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting Working with Sources: Integrating Quotations from Your Interviews

Critical Reading Guide 114

Revising 115 Troubleshooting Your Draft 116

Thinking about Document Design: Creating Web-Based Essays 118

Editing and Proofreading 118 Checking the Punctuation of Quotations A Common ESL Problem: Adjective Order

A Writer at Work 120

Brian Cable’s Interview Notes and Write-Up 120 The Interview Notes The Interview Write-Up

Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 124

Reflecting on Your Writing 124

Considering the Social Dimensions: Entertaining Readers, or Showing the Whole Picture? 125

4 EXPLAINING A CONCEPT 126 A Collaborative Activity: Practice Explaining a Concept 129

Reading Concept Explanations 129

Basic Features 129

Purpose and Audience 131

Readings 131

Linh Kieu Ngo, “Cannibalism: It Still Exists” (annotated student essay) 131

Anastasia Toufexis, “Love: The Right Chemistry” 136 Richard A. Friedman, “Born to Be Happy, Through a Twist

of Human Hard Wire” 143 Jeffrey Kluger, “What Makes Us Moral” 148

Beyond the Traditional Essay: Explaining a Concept 159



Guide to Writing 160

The Writing Assignment 160 Starting Points: Explaining a Concept 161

Invention and Research 162 Choosing a Concept to Write About

Ways In: Gaining an Overview of a Concept 164

Ways In: Focusing the Concept 165

Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice Designing Your Document Defining Your Purpose for Your Readers Formulating a Tentative Thesis Statement

Planning and Drafting 168 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting Working with Sources: Using Descriptive Verbs to Introduce Information

Critical Reading Guide 173

Revising 174 Troubleshooting Your Draft 175

Thinking about Document Design: Designing Surveys and Presenting Results 178

Editing and Proofreading 180 Using Punctuation with Adjective Clauses Using Commas with Interrupting Phrases

A Writer at Work 181

Linh Kieu Ngo’s Use of Sources 181

Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 182

Reflecting on Your Writing 182

Considering the Social Dimensions: Concept Explanations and the Nature of Knowledge 183

5 FINDING COMMON GROUND 184 A Collaborative Activity: Practice Finding Common Ground 187

Reading Essays That Seek Common Ground 188

Basic Features 188

Purpose and Audience 190

Readings 191

Jeremy Bernard, “Lost Innocence” (annotated student essay) 191 Melissa Mae, “Laying Claim to a Higher Morality”

(student essay) 195 Athena Alexander, “No Child Left Behind: ‘Historic Initiative’

or ‘Just an Empty Promise’?” (student essay) 201

Beyond the Traditional Essay: Finding Common Ground 210

Guide to Writing 212

The Writing Assignment 212 Starting Points: Finding Common Ground 213

Invention and Research 214 Choosing a Set of Argument Essays to Write About Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice Thinking about Your Readers Researching the Issue Designing Your Document Defining Your Purpose for Your Readers Formulating a Tentative Thesis Statement

Planning and Drafting 221 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting Working with Sources: Weaving Quoted Materials into Your Own Sentences

Critical Reading Guide 227

Revising 228 Thinking about Document Design: Helping Readers Visualize a Solution 228

Troubleshooting Your Draft 230

Editing and Proofreading 231 Using Commas around Interrupting Phrases Correcting Vague Pronoun Reference


A Writer at Work 232

Melissa Mae’s Analysis 232 Annotating and Charting Annotations 232 Mirko Bagaric and Julie Clarke, “A Case for Torture” 233 Kermit D. Johnson, “Inhuman Behavior: A Chaplain’s View

of Torture” 235

Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 241

Reflecting on Your Writing 242

Considering the Social Dimensions: Being Fair and Impartial 242

Appendix: Two Debates 243

Debate 1: Torture 244 Understanding the Torture Debate 244

Ross Douthat, “Thinking about Torture” 245 Glenn Greenwald, “Committing War Crimes for the ‘Right

Reasons’” 248 Maryann Cusimano Love, “An End to Torture” 251

Debate 2: Same-Sex Marriage 255 Understanding the Debate over Same-Sex Marriage 255

La Shawn Barber, “Interracial Marriage: Slippery Slope?” 256 Anna Quindlen, “The Loving Decision” 258 National Review Editorial, “The Future of Marriage” 260 Andrew Sullivan, “The Right’s Contempt for Gay Lives” 261

6 ARGUING A POSITION 264 A Collaborative Activity: Practice Arguing a Position 267

Reading Essays Arguing a Position 267

Basic Features 267

Purpose and Audience 269

Readings 270

Jessica Statsky, “Children Need to Play, Not Compete” (annotated student essay) 270

Richard Estrada, “Sticks and Stones and Sports Team Names” 274


Amitai Etzioni, “Working at McDonald’s” 280 Amy Goldwasser, “What’s the Matter with Kids Today?” 286

Beyond the Traditional Essay: Arguing a Position 291

Guide to Writing 293

The Writing Assignment 293 Starting Points: Arguing a Position 294

Invention and Research 294 Choosing an Issue to Write About 295

Ways In: Bringing the Issue and Your Audience into Focus 297

Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice

Ways In: Developing Your Argument and Counterargument 299

Researching Your Argument Designing Your Document Defining Your Purpose for Your Readers Formulating a Tentative Thesis Statement

Planning and Drafting 302 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting Working with Sources: Fairly and Accurately Quoting Opposing Positions

Critical Reading Guide 308

Revising 309 Troubleshooting Your Draft 310

Thinking about Document Design: Adding Visuals 311

Editing and Proofreading 312 Using Commas before Coordinating Conjunctions Using Punctuation with Conjunctive Adverbs A Common ESL Problem: Subtle Differences in Meaning

A Writer at Work 315

Jessica Statsky’s Response to Opposing Positions 315 Listing Reasons for the Opposing Position Accommodating a Plausible Reason Refuting an Implausible Reason


Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 317

Reflecting on Your Writing 317

Considering the Social Dimensions: Suppressing Dissent 318

7 PROPOSING A SOLUTION 320 A Collaborative Activity: Practice Proposing a Solution to a Problem 323

Reading Essays Proposing a Solution 323

Basic Features 323

Purpose and Audience 325

Readings 326

Patrick O’Malley, “More Testing, More Learning” (annotated student essay) 326

Karen Kornbluh, “Win-Win Flexibility” 331 Matt Miller, “A New Deal for Teachers” 338 Robert Kuttner, “Good Jobs for Americans Who

Help Americans” 346

Beyond the Traditional Essay: Proposing a Solution 355

Guide to Writing 356

The Writing Assignment 356 Starting Points: Proposing a Solution 357

Invention and Research 358 Choosing a Problem to Write About 358

Ways In: Bringing the Problem and Your Audience into Focus 361

Ways In: Exploring Your Tentative Solution 362

Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice


Ways In: Counterarguing Alternative Solutions 364

Researching Your Proposal Designing Your Document Defining Your Purpose for Your Readers Formulating a Tentative Thesis Statement

Planning and Drafting 366 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting A Sentence Strategy: Rhetorical Questions Working with Sources: Establishing the Problem’s Existence and Seriousness

Critical Reading Guide 373

Revising 374 Troubleshooting Your Draft 375

Thinking about Document Design: Following Formatting Conventions 376

Editing and Proofreading 377 Avoiding Ambiguous Use of This and That Revising Sentences That Lack an Agent

A Writer at Work 379

Patrick O’Malley’s Revision Process 379

Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 381

Reflecting on Your Writing 381

Considering the Social Dimensions: The Frustrations of Effecting Real Change 382

8 JUSTIFYING AN EVALUATION 384 A Collaborative Activity: Practice Evaluating a Subject 386

Reading Essays Justifying Evaluations 387

Basic Features 387

Purpose and Audience 388

Readings 389

Wendy Kim, “Grading Professors” (annotated student essay) 389 Ann Hulbert, “Juno and the Culture Wars” 395


Christine Romano, “‘Children Need to Play, Not Compete,’ by Jessica Statsky: An Evaluation” (student essay) 402

Christine Rosen, “The Myth of Multitasking” 409

Beyond the Traditional Essay: Justifying an Evaluation 417

Guide to Writing 419

The Writing Assignment 419 Starting Points: Justifying an Evaluation 420

Invention and Research 421 Choosing a Subject to Write About

Ways In: Bringing the Subject and Your Audience into Focus 423

Making a Tentative Judgment Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice

Ways In: Developing Your Argument and Counterargument 426

Researching Your Argument Designing Your Document Defining Your Purpose for Your Readers Formulating a Tentative Thesis Statement

Planning and Drafting 429 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting Working with Sources: Using Summary to Support Your Evaluative Argument

Critical Reading Guide 436

Revising 437 Troubleshooting Your Draft 438

Thinking about Document Design: Using Images to Support an Argument 439

Editing and Proofreading 441 Complete, Correct Comparisons Combining Sentences

A Writer at Work 443

Christine Romano’s Counterargument of Objections 443

Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 444

Reflecting on Your Writing 444


Considering the Social Dimensions: Evaluators’ Hidden Assumptions 445

9 SPECULATING ABOUT CAUSES 446 A Collaborative Activity: Practice Speculating about Causes 449

Reading Essays That Speculate about Causes 449

Basic Features 449

Purpose and Audience 451

Readings 451

Sheila McClain, “Fitness Culture: A Growing Trend in America” (annotated student essay) 451

Stephen King, “Why We Crave Horror Movies” 456 Erica Goode, “The Gorge-Yourself Environment” 461 Jeremy Hsu, “The Secrets of Storytelling: Why We Love a

Good Yarn” 471

Beyond the Traditional Essay: Speculating about Causes 477

Guide to Writing 479

The Writing Assignment 479 Starting Points: Speculating about Causes 480

Invention and Research 481 Considering Subjects and Their Possible Causes Exploring What You Know and Need to Find Out about Your Subject Analyzing Your Readers Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice

Ways In: Developing Your Argument and Counterargument 485

Designing Your Document Defining Your Purpose for Your Readers Formulating a Tentative Thesis Statement

Planning and Drafting 487 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting Working with Sources: Citing a Variety of Sources to Support Your Causal Speculations

Critical Reading Guide 493


Revising 494 Troubleshooting Your Draft 495

Thinking about Document Design: Adding Graphs and Photos 496

Editing and Proofreading 498 Checking Your Use of Numbers Checking for Reason Is Because Constructions

A Writer at Work 500

Sheila McClain’s Analysis of Possible Causes 500

Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 501

Reflecting on Your Writing 502

Considering the Social Dimensions: Causal Speculation and the Power of Authority and Ideology 502

10 ANALYZING STORIES 504 A Collaborative Activity: Practice Analyzing a Story 505

Reading Essays That Analyze Stories 506

Basic Features 506

Purpose and Audience 507

Readings 508

Sally Crane, “Gazing into the Darkness” (annotated student essay) 508

David Ratinov, “From Innocence to Insight: ‘Araby’ as an Initiation Story” (student essay) 511

Beyond the Traditional Essay: Analyzing Stories 516

Guide to Writing 517

The Writing Assignment 517 Starting Points: Analyzing Stories 518

Invention and Research 519 Finding a Story to Write About Analyzing the Story Annotating with the Suggestions for Analysis in Mind


Ways In: Developing Your Analysis 524

Testing Your Choice A Collaborative Activity: Testing Your Choice Formulating a Tentative Thesis Statement Researching Your Story Designing Your Document

Planning and Drafting 528 Refining Your Purpose and Setting Goals Outlining Your Draft Drafting Working with Sources: Quoting from the Story to Support Your Analysis

Critical Reading Guide 536

Revising 537 Troubleshooting Your Draft 538

Editing and Proofreading 539 Using Parallel Structure Using Ellipsis Marks Correctly

A Writer at Work 541

David Ratinov’s Invention Work 541 Annotating Examining Patterns in the Story Listing Ideas

Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned 545

Reflecting on Your Writing 545

Considering the Social Dimensions: Writing for a Specialized Audience 545

An Anthology of Short Stories 546

Kate Chopin, “The Story of an Hour” 547 James Joyce, “Araby” 549 William Carlos Williams, “The Use of Force” 554 Sherman Alexie, “A Good Story” 557

PART 2 Critical Thinking Strategies

11 A CATALOG OF INVENTION STRATEGIES 562 Mapping 562 Clustering Listing Outlining

Writing 568 Cubing Dialoguing Dramatizing Keeping a Journal Looping Questioning Quick Drafting


12 A CATALOG OF READING STRATEGIES 575 Annotating 576 Martin Luther King Jr., An Annotated Sample from “Letter from

Birmingham Jail” 576

Taking Inventory 583

Outlining 583

Paraphrasing 586

Summarizing 587

Synthesizing 588

Contextualizing 589

Exploring the Significance of Figurative Language 590

Looking for Patterns of Opposition 592

Reflecting on Challenges to Your Beliefs and Values 593

Evaluating the Logic of an Argument 594 Testing for Appropriateness Testing for Believability Testing for Consistency and Completeness

Recognizing Emotional Manipulation 596

Judging the Writer’s Credibility 597 Testing for Knowledge Testing for Common Ground Testing for Fairness

PART 3 Writing Strategies

13 CUEING THE READER 600 Orienting Statements 600 Thesis Statements Forecasting Statements

Paragraphing 602 Paragraph Cues Topic Sentence Strategies

Cohesive Devices 606 Pronoun Reference Word Repetition Synonyms Sentence Structure Repetition Collocation


Transitions 610 Logical Relationships Temporal Relationships Spatial Relationships

Headings and Subheadings 613 Heading Systems and Levels Headings and Genres Frequency and Placement of Headings

14 NARRATING 615 Narrating Strategies 615 Calendar and Clock Time Temporal Transitions Verb Tense Specific Narrative Action Dialogue

Narrating a Process 623 Explanatory Process Narratives Instructional Process Narratives

15 DESCRIBING 628 Naming 628

Detailing 629

Comparing 631

Using Sensory Description 632 The Sense of Sight The Sense of Hearing The Sense of Smell The Sense of Touch The Sense of Taste

Creating a Dominant Impression 637

16 DEFINING 639 Sentence Definitions 640

Extended Definitions 641

Historical Definitions 643

Stipulative Definitions 645

17 CLASSIFYING 647 Organizing Classification 647

Illustrating Classification 649

Maintaining Clarity and Coherence 652


18 COMPARING AND CONTRASTING 653 Two Ways of Comparing and Contrasting 653

Analogy 657

19 ARGUING 659 Asserting a Thesis 659 Arguable Assertions Clear and Precise Wording Appropriate Qualification

Giving Reasons and Support 662 Examples Statistics Authorities Anecdotes Textual Evidence

Counterarguing 668 Acknowledging Readers’ Concerns Accommodating Readers’ Concerns Refuting Readers’ Objections

Logical Fallacies 671

20 ANALYZING VISUALS 673 Criteria for Analyzing Visuals 675

A Sample Analysis 677

21 DESIGNING DOCUMENTS 688 The Impact of Document Design 688

Considering Context, Audience, and Purpose 689

Elements of Document Design 690 Font Style and Size Headings and Body Text Numbered and Bulleted Lists Colors White Space

Visuals 695 Choose Appropriate Visuals and Design the Visuals with Their Final Use in Mind Number and Title Your Visuals Label the Parts of Your Visuals and Include Descriptive Captions Cite Your Visual Sources Integrate the Visual into the Text Use Common Sense When Creating Visuals on a Computer


Sample Documents 703 Memos Letters E-mail Résumés Job-Application Letters Lab Reports Web Pages

PART 4 Research Strategies

22 FIELD RESEARCH 716 Observations 716 Planning the Visit Observing and Taking Notes Reflecting on Your Observations Writing Up Your Notes Preparing for Follow-Up Visits

Interviews 719 Planning and Setting Up the Interview Taking Notes during the Interview Reflecting on the Interview Writing Up Your Notes

Questionnaires 723 Focusing Your Study Writing Questions Designing the Questionnaire Testing the Questionnaire Administering the Questionnaire Writing Up the Results

23 LIBRARY AND INTERNET RESEARCH 728 Orienting Yourself to the Library 728 Taking a Tour Consulting Librarians

Getting Started 730 Knowing Your Research Task Finding Out What Your Library Offers Consulting Encyclopedias Consulting Bibliographies

Keeping Track of Your Research 733 Keeping a Working Bibliography Taking Notes

Finding Library Sources 735 General Search Strategies Finding Books: Using the Online Library Catalog Finding Articles Finding Government and Statistical Information Finding Other Library Sources


Determining the Most Promising Sources 746

Using the Web for Research 747 Finding the Best Information Online Using E-mail and Online Communities for Research

Evaluating Sources 752 Selecting Relevant Sources Identifying Bias

24 USING SOURCES 755 Acknowledging Sources 755

Avoiding Plagiarism 756

Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing 756 Deciding Whether to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize Quoting Integrating Quotations Introducing Quotations Punctuating within Quotations Avoiding Grammatical Tangles Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Documenting Sources 764 The MLA System of Documentation The APA System of Documentation

Some Sample Research Papers 785

An Annotated Research Paper 786


Annotated Bibliographies and Literature Reviews: An Overview 796 Purpose and Audience

Annotated Bibliographies 798 Different Types of Annotation Writing an Annotated Bibliography

Literature Reviews 805 Writing a Literature Review


PART 5 Writing for Assessment

26 ESSAY EXAMINATIONS 814 Preparing for an Exam 814

Reading the Exam Carefully 815

Some Typical Essay Exam Questions 816 Define or Identify Recall Details of a Specific Source Explain the Importance or Significance Apply Concepts Comment on a Quotation Compare and Contrast Synthesize Information from Various Sources Analyze Causes Criticize or Evaluate

Planning Your Answer 824

Writing Your Answer 825

Model Answers to Some Typical Essay Exam Questions 826 Short Answers Paragraph-Length Answers Long Answers

27 WRITING PORTFOLIOS 832 The Purposes of a Writing Portfolio 832

Assembling a Portfolio for Your Composition Course 833 Selecting Work Reflecting on Your Work and Your Learning Organizing the Portfolio

PART 6 Writing and Speaking to Wider Audiences

28 ORAL PRESENTATIONS 838 Be Ready Understand the Kind of Oral Presentation You Have Been Asked to Give Assess Your Audience and Purpose


Determine How Much Information You Can Present in the Allotted Time Use Cues to Orient Listeners Prepare Effective and Appropriate Visuals Verify That You Will Have the Correct Equipment and Supplies Rehearse Your Presentation Deliver the Oral Presentation Professionally End Your Presentation Graciously

29 WORKING WITH OTHERS 843 Working with Others on Your Individual Writing Projects 843

Working with Others on Joint Writing Projects 845

30 WRITING IN YOUR COMMUNITY 848 Using Your Service Experience as Source Material 848 Finding a Topic Gathering Sources Writing about Your Service Experience Writing for Your Service Organization

HANDBOOK How to Use This Handbook H-1

Keeping a Record of Your Own Errors H-3

S SENTENCE BOUNDARIES H-5 S1 Comma Splices S2 Fused Sentences S3 Sentence Fragments

G GRAMMATICAL SENTENCES H-11 G1 Pronoun Reference G2 Pronoun Agreement G3 Relative Pronouns G4 Pronoun Case G5 Verbs G6 Subject-Verb Agreement G7 Adjectives and Adverbs


E EFFECTIVE SENTENCES H-30 E1 Missing Words E2 Shifts E3 Noun Agreement E4 Modifiers E5 Mixed Constructions E6 Integrated Quotations, Questions, and Thoughts E7 Parallelism E8 Coordination and Subordination

W WORD CHOICE H-47 W1 Concise Sentences W2 Exact Words W3 Appropriate Words

P PUNCTUATION H-57 P1 Commas P2 Unnecessary Commas P3 Semicolons P4 Colons P5 Dashes P6 Quotation Marks P7 Apostrophes P8 Parentheses P9 Brackets P10 Ellipsis Marks P11 Slashes P12 Periods P13 Question Marks P14 Exclamation Points

M MECHANICS H-85 M1 Hyphens M2 Capitalization M3 Spacing M4 Numbers M5 Underlining (Italics) M6 Abbreviations M7 Titles and Headings M8 Special Design Features M9 Spelling

L ESL TROUBLESPOTS H-104 L1 Articles L2 Verbs L3 Prepositions L4 Omitted or Repeated Words L5 Adjective Order L6 Participles

R REVIEW OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE H-115 R1 Basic Sentence Structure R2 Basic Sentence Elements



Author and Title Index I-1

Subject Index I-4

Index for ESL Writers I-29


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1Introduction: Thinking about Writing

Philosopher Edmund Burke once said that “reading without reflecting is like eating without digesting.” We believe that what Burke said about reading applies to writing as well, and that reflecting on writing is one of the best ways to become a better and more versatile writer. That is why quotes from writers are sprinkled throughout this chapter. That is also why in this chapter and throughout this book, we ask you to write brief reflections, ultimately constructing a literacy narrative, a multifaceted story about yourself as a writer.

Reflection 1. A Literacy Story

Take five to ten minutes to write a story of your experience with writing. Consider the following suggestions, but do not be limited by them:

Recall an early experience of writing: What did you write? Did anyone read it? What kind of feedback did you get? How did you feel about yourself?

Think of a turning point when your attitude toward writing changed or crystallized. What happened? What changed?

Recall a person — a teacher, classmate, family member, published writer, or someone else — who influenced your writing, for good or ill. How was your writing affected?

Cast yourself as the main character of a story about writing. How would you de- scribe yourself — as a “natural” writer; as someone who struggles to write well; or somewhere in between? Consider your trajectory or “narrative arc”: Over the years, would you say you have showed steady improvement; ups and downs; more downs than ups; a decline?

Why Writing Is Important Writing helps you think and learn, enhances your chances of success, contrib- utes to your personal development, and strengthens your relationships with other people.

Writing Influences the Way You Think

The very act of writing encourages you to be creative as well as organized and logical in your thinking. When you write sentences, paragraphs, and whole essays,

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