16 CoNTENTS:global Competition and national Competitive Advantage 524 Factor Conditions 525

16 CoNTENTS:global Competition and national Competitive Advantage 524 Factor Conditions 525
16 CoNTENTS:global Competition and national Competitive Advantage 524 Factor Conditions 525

Human Resources 525 Physical Resources 525 Knowledge Resources 526 Capital Resources 526 Infrastructure Resources 526

Demand Conditions 526 Composition of Home Demand 527 Size and Pattern of Growth of Home Demand 528 Rapid Home-Market Growth 528 Means by Which a Nation’s Products and Services Are Pushed or Pulled into Foreign Countries 528

Related and Supporting Industries 529 Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry 529 Chance 530 Government 530

Current issues in Competitive Advantage 531 Hypercompetitive Industries 531

Cost/Quality 532 Timing and Know-How 533 Entry Barriers 534

Additional Research on Comparative Advantage 535

Chapter 17 Leadership, Organization, and Corporate Social responsibility 544 Leadership 545

Top Management Nationality 546 Leadership and Core Competence 548

organizing for global Marketing 549 Patterns of International Organizational Development 551

International Division Structure 553 Regional Management Centers 555 Geographical and Product Division Structures 556 The Matrix Design 557

Lean Production: organizing the Japanese Way 559 Assembler Value Chains 560 Downstream Value Chains 561

Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Social Responsiveness in the globalization Era 563

Glossary 575 Author/Name Index 589 Subject/Organization Index 597

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Global Marketing, Eighth Edition, builds on the worldwide success of the previous editions of Principles of Global Marketing and Global Marketing. Those books took an environmental and strategic approach by outlining the major dimensions of the global business environment. The authors also provided a set of conceptual and analytical tools that prepared students to success- fully apply the four Ps to global marketing.

our goal for all eight editions has been the same: to write a book that is authoritative in con- tent yet relaxed and assured in style and tone. Here’s what students have to say:

● “an excellent textbook with many real-life examples.” ● “The authors use simple language and clearly state the important points.” ● “This is the best textbook that I am using this term.” ● “The authors have done an excellent job of writing a text that can be read easily.”

When Principles of Global Marketing first appeared in 1996, we invited readers to “look ahead” to such developments as the ending of america’s trade embargo with Vietnam, Europe’s new single market, Daimler aG’s Smart car, Volkswagen’s global ambitions, and Whirlpool’s expansion into emerging markets. These topics represented “big stories” in the global marketing arena and continue to receive press coverage on a regular basis.

Guided by our experience using the text in undergraduate and graduate classrooms and in corporate training seminars, we have revised, updated, and expanded Global Marketing, Eighth Edition. We have benefited tremendously from readers’ feedback and input; we also continue to draw on our direct experience in the americas, asia, Europe, africa, and the Middle East. The result is a text that addresses your needs and the needs of instructors in every part of the world. Global Marketing has been adopted at scores of colleges and universities in the United States; international use of the English-language Global Edition is found in australia, Canada, China, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Saudi arabia, South Korea, Spain, and Sri lanka. The text is also available in albanian, Chinese (simplified and traditional), Japanese, Korean, Macedonian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Turkish editions.

what’s New to the Eighth Edition Thunderclap Newman once sang,

“Call out the instigator, there’s something in the air . . . we’ve got to get together sooner or later, because the revolution’s here.”

Indeed, something is in the air. Two specific geopolitical developments that formed the backdrop to the Seventh Edition continue to dominate the headlines as this revision goes to press. First, after popular uprisings in North africa upended the long-entrenched political order, the region is still in transition. Tensions remain especially high in Egypt and Syria. Second, the sovereign debt crisis in the euro zone, while still not resolved, is not as acute today as it was in 2011. High on the EU’s agenda now are broader concerns about high unemployment levels and stagnant demand in Greece, Italy, and elsewhere.

More generally, the global economic crisis continues to impact global marketing strate- gies. Virtually every industry sector, company, and country has been affected by the downturn. although the North american auto industry is rebounding, Europe’s automakers are plagued by excess capacity. The lack of credit remains a key issue that is still squeezing companies and con- sumers. among the bright spots: Real estate values in the United States appear to have bottomed


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out, and the uptick in the demand for housing provides grounds for optimism. also, Wall Street continues to rebound, with some stocks hitting record highs.

although all of these storylines continue to unfold as this edition goes to press, we have tried to offer up-to-date, original insights into the complexities and subtleties of these shifts in the external environment and their implications for global marketers. other specific updates and revisions include:

● Fifty percent of the chapter-opening cases and related end-of-chapter cases are new to the Eighth Edition. Holdover cases have been revised and updated.

● all tables containing key company, country, and industry data have been updated. Examples include Table 2-3, “Index of Economic Freedom”; all the income and population tables in Chapters 3 and 7; Table 10-2, “The World’s Most Valuable brands”; Table 13-1, “Top 25 Global Marketers”; and Table 13-2, “Top 20 Global advertising agency Companies.”

● The discussion of bRIC nations has been expanded to talk about the bRICS countries, reflecting South africa’s increasing importance as an emerging market.

● New discussion of social media is integrated throughout the Eighth Edition. Chapter 15, “Global Marketing and the Digital Revolution,” has been completely revised and updated to include discussion of location-based mobile platforms, cloud computing, tablets, and other emerging topics.

● a new sidebar, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and the Global Startup, presents profiles of visionary business leaders from around the world.

● Income and population data in Chapter 3 have been reorganized for improved clarity and comparability.

● a new emphasis on developing critical thinking skills when analyzing chapter-ending cases has been included in the Eighth Edition.

● To supplement the use of Global Marketing, Eighth Edition, faculty and students can access author updates and comments on Twitter, the microblogging Web site. In addition, the authors have archived nearly 2,000 articles pertaining to global marketing on Delicious.com, the social bookmarking site (www.delicious.com/MarkCGreen).

Time marches on. as this edition goes to press in 2013, some iconic global brands and companies celebrate golden anniversaries. among them: the beatles! Fifty years ago, the bea- tles topped the charts in the United Kingdom before fundamentally revolutionizing popular music. also 50 years ago, the first hypermarket opened in France. Turning 40 this year is the mobile phone; Motorola’s DynaTec mobile handset was the first shot fired in the nascent tele- communications revolution. It was 30 years ago, in 1983, that Theodore levitt’s classic article “The Globalization of Markets” was published in Harvard Business Review. That same year, the compact disc player was introduced, ushering in a new era of digital music. and, in april 2013, apple’s game-changing iTunes store turned 10.

Unifying themes in earlier editions included the growing impact of emerging nations in general and brazil, Russia, India, and China in particular. To those four bRIC countries we add South africa in this edition. also in earlier editions, we explored the marketing strategies used by global companies such as Embraer (brazil), lukoil (Russia), Cemex (Mexico), lenovo (China), and India’s big Three—Wipro, Infosys, and Tata—to build scale and scope on the global stage. We then broadened our view to examine emerging markets as a whole. We noted that, prior to the world wide economic downturn, Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkey (the so-called MINTs) and a handful of other emerging nations were rapidly approaching the tipping point in terms of both competitive vigor and marketing opportunity.

In the Seventh Edition previously, we charted the path of the nascent economic recovery and the resulting shifts in global market opportunities and threats. New phrases such as austerity, capital flight, currency wars, double-dip recession, global imbalances, global rebalancing, quantitative easing (QE), and sovereign-debt crisis were introduced into the discourse. The crisis in the euro zone was, and remains, one of the top stories of the year. Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain bear especially close observation; this is the open- ing case in Chapter 3. Meanwhile, the big news in asia was China’s overtaking Japan as the world’s second-largest economy. China has also surpassed the United States as the world’s leading manufacturer.

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